- (1879-1955)physicist; postulated the theory of the relativity of mass. Born in Ulm, he spent much of his early life in Munich. Averse to classroom regimentation, he withdrew from school at fifteen, relin-quished his citizenship, and joined his parents in Milan. He soon relocated to Switzerland, where, upon completing Gymnasium in 1901, he took Swiss citi-zenship. In rapid succession he wrote his first scientific works while working as an official at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern, completed a degree in physics and mathematics at Zurich's Technische Hochschule, qualified as a Privatdozent, started a family, earned a doctorate in 1905, and became an ausserordentlicher Professor in 1909 at the University of Zürich. In 1913 he relocated to Berlin* as director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Theoretical Physics; he also be-came a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Eight years later he was the Nobel laureate for his 1905 work on the photoelectric effect. Upon accepting his award in 1922, Einstein spoke not about his discovery of light quanta but about his theory of relativity—confirmed in 1919 through observation of light deviation in a solar eclipse.After receipt of the Nobel Prize, Einstein was made an honorary German citizen (he retained his Swiss nationality). However, in the years that followed, many Germans denounced him; indeed, a society of Einstein opponents was established in Berlin. They rejected his theory of relativity because he was both a pacifist and a Jew.* Among those rebuking him was a fellow Nobel laureate. Amidst the wave of murders that claimed the lives of Matthias Erzberger* and Walther Rathenau,* friends advised him to leave Berlin. In 1922 he wrote Max Planck* that people had warned him not to appear publicly because "I am said to belong to the group of those people against whom the Nationals have planned assassination* attempts." But Einstein ignored the warnings, and in time life seemed to normalize. In 1929 the Berlin city council announced its intent to honor him on his fiftieth birthday with a gift of property on one of Berlin's lakes; however, the plan soon foundered on the negative vote of the Council's DNVP members. Einstein purchased the site at his own expense.In 1933, when Einstein and his wife were in the United States, news came that Hitler* had seized power. Einstein resolved not to return home; he resigned his positions and accepted appointment at Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study. He never again saw Germany.REFERENCES:Clark, Einstein; DSB, vol. 4; Feuer, Einstein; NDB, vol. 4.
A Historical dictionary of Germany's Weimar Republic, 1918-1933. C. Paul Vincent.
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EINSTEIN, ALBERT — (1879–1955), physicist, discoverer of the theory of relativity, and Nobel Prize winner. Born in the German town of Ulm, son of the proprietor of a small electrochemical business, Einstein spent his early youth in Munich. He detested the military… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Einstein, Albert — born March 14, 1879, Ulm, Württemberg, Ger. died April 18, 1955, Princeton, N.J., U.S. German Swiss U.S. scientist. Born to a Jewish family in Germany, he grew up in Munich, and his family moved to Switzerland in 1894. He became a junior examiner … Universalium
Einstein , Albert — (1879–1955) German–Swiss–American theoretical physicist Einstein was born at Ulm in Germany where his father was a manufacturer of electrical equipment. Business failure led his father to move the family first to Munich, where Einstein entered… … Scientists
Einstein, Albert — (1879–1955) German physicist, Nobel laureate 1921. The most famous scientist in the modern world did not look the part. He was a small, mild man with bushy hair, who usually dressed in an old polo necked sweater, loved to play the violin, and… … Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament
Einstein, Albert — (1879 1955) Born in Ulm, Germany, and educated in Munich and Zurich, Switzerland, Albert Einstein developed the theory of relativity published in a series of articles in the Annals of Physics in 1905. This was the most revolutionary… … Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era
Einstein, Albert — (1879–1955) German physicist and discoverer of the theory of relativity . Born in Ulm, Einstein received his scientific education in Zurich. After an undistinguished career as a student he found employment in the Patent Office in Bern, and it was … Philosophy dictionary
Einstein, Albert — ► (1879 1955) Físico y matemático alemán, de origen judío. Fue premio Nobel de Física en 1921 por su descubrimiento de la ley del efecto fotoeléctrico. Estudió los fundamentos de la termodinámica, el movimiento browniano y contribuyó también a la … Enciclopedia Universal
EINSTEIN, Albert — (1879 1955) German/Jewish mathematician and physicist who emigrated to America and whose work radically changed our ideas about space and time. Together with Max PLANCK S quantum theory, Einstein s work on RELATIVITY laid the foundations for… … Concise dictionary of Religion
Einstein, Albert — (1879 AD 1955 AD) A German born American mathematician and physicist who created the general and special theories of relativity. The general theory sees space and time as one object, not two separate ones. He also hypothesized the particle… … The writer's dictionary of science fiction, fantasy, horror and mythology
Einstein,Albert — Ein·stein (īnʹstīn ), Albert. 1879 1955. German born American theoretical physicist whose special and general theories of relativity revolutionized modern thought on the nature of space and time and formed a theoretical base for the exploitation… … Universalium